The Five Freedoms of Animal Welfare

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Freedom from thirst, hunger and malnutrition

A balanced and complete diet that suits the animal’s needs at every life stage, supplied appropriately. Unlimited supply of fresh water.

Freedom from fear and distress

Companion and protection from conditions likely to lead to fear and distress; identification (microchip, collar).

Freedom from discomfort

Adequate space and shelter, no extremes of temperature, adequate light, low noise levels, cleanliness, indoor only – especially cats – or access to the outdoors, provision of adequate shade when outdoors.

Freedom from pain, injury and disease

Vaccination, internal and external parasite control, routine veterinary visits/check-ups, prompt access to veterinary care.

Freedom to express normal behaviour

Opportunities to express normal behaviour, including behaviour directed towards other animals and humans.